However, the states and territories do offer various other incentives such as rego discounts, stamp duty exemptions, T2/T3 lane access that, in some cases, apply to bikes.
Rhys says it is important for states to “get consistency of regulations around electric-powered two-wheelers”.
“At the moment there is a discrepancy regarding power to weight ratios applied to E motorcycles, in regard to LAMS eligibility,” he says.
Dominic Kavo of Australia’s first electric bike and scooter company, Fonzarelli, says stamp duty exemptions and registration concessions available for EV bikes in various states are “not as widespread as it really should be and states like Victoria have no concessions to speak of regarding EV motos”.
“We would love to see a lot more incentives for EV riders,” he says.
“To see them be at least commensurate with EV cars would be a great start but I feel there is also the opportunity to encourage more two-wheelers in many different landscapes as they can reduce congestion as well as emissions in these areas greatly.
“Overall encouraging and creating greater access to EV’s, whether it be monetary benefits, specific EV parking allocations, rebates and any other benefit is a rather necessary measure to help Australia get up to speed with the changing technology and maybe one day become a leader in sustainability.”
Triumph today signalled that their exciting TE-1 project, a collaboration between Williams Advanced Engineering, University of Warwick and Integral Powertrain, backed by the British Government investment via the UK Office for Zero Emission Vehicles, is one step closer to charging up British motorways.
Triumph recently completed Phase Three of the project with their development partners and were responsible for the production of the complete chassis and rolling stock.A Gates Carbon belt drive is utilised on the TE-1 prototype.The suspension and braking package look high end thanks to Ohlins, who made a unique prototype shock for the TE-1, and Brembo’s top notch M50 Monobloc’s grace the front end.
Williams Advanced Engineering were responsible for the battery pack, vehicle control unit, DC-DC converter, integrated cooling, charge port, and styled carbon covers.
Integral Powertrain: Final prototype powertrain with scalable integrated inverter and combined motor with silicon carbide switching technology and integrated cooling.
The motor is claimed to achieve peak and continuous power densities of 13 kW/kg and 9 kW/kg respectively which is 60% higher than new APC technology roadmap targets for 2025. All of this has been achieved using materials and processes compatible with volume automotive production and importantly using a length scalable motor platform. Integral claim the power unit will be capable of producing more than 500kW!
University of Warwick conducted the final pre-live trial simulation, with all results indicating that the project is on course to deliver the intended performance and durability outcomes
Key project achievements during this phase include test results that exceed current benchmarks and targets set by the UK Automotive Council for 2025, providing a platform with great potential for future development in electric motorcycle performance.
The overall objective of the TE-1 project has been focused on developing electric motorcycle capability, in order to provide an input into Triumph’s future electric motorcycle offering, driving innovation, capability, and new intellectual property, and enhancing the credibility and profile of British industry and design.
With Phase Three signed off now the project moves into Phase Four which is a six-month extensive live testing programme both with rolling road testing and track testing.
This is a huge task that will involve countless man hours invested to achieve the best throttle calibration, powertrain mapping and output tuning, the development of different Rider Modes and assessing the range and battery life in various scenarios. They must also ensure the bike is tuned in a manner that it keeps its cool via thermal optimisation.
The handling and braking regeneration strategies, along with the tuning of the traction and wheelie control functionality will take place on the racetrack.
At the completion of the live testing phase, somewhere are the middle of this year, the prototype demonstrator will be updated with its final body panels and paint scheme, in preparation for active track demonstration, and media engagement.
At this time, the full results of the project including the final specifications and testing outcomes will be published, as well as insights and key facts on how the TE-1 delivers on the project targets for innovation and sets new standards for the motorcycle sector overall, including final battery and range performance.
Nick Bloor – Triumph CEO
“It has been truly exciting to see the progress made during phase 3 of Project Triumph TE1 with the final prototype motorcycle now going into real life testing. Everyone involved at Triumph are proud to have been part of this innovative British collaboration. Personally, I am thrilled with the results we have already achieved with our partners, and the exciting preview of the potential electric future to come. We look forward to continuing the ambitious and innovative work on the TE-1 demonstrator prototype through the live testing phase and sharing the outcome with Triumph fans across the world.”
PROJECT TE-1 – PHASE 3 FINER DETAILS
The Triumph TE-1 team began phase 3 by successfully building an initial mule bike which incorporated the battery, inverter, motor, and chassis into one machine for the first time. Using this platform, all of the project partners worked collaboratively to optimise software integration across the complex systems, involving hundreds of hours of detailed testing to ensure the functionality of all the features and software aspects behave accurately and intuitively, as a customer would expect.
This was validated in real life simulation work carried out at WMG, involving detailed powertrain rig testing and simulations to assess safety critical items relating to motor function and vehicle control. Durability testing on the primary transmission has also been conducted to ensure a full understanding of the fundamental differences in electric motor load application for vehicle use cases, efficiency, and consequences to gear life.
Alongside this work, the Triumph-led design of the bespoke chassis has focused on delivering the phase 2 styling intent as closely as possible. Phase 3 of the project is now complete with the fully assembled TE-1 demonstrator prototype, the photographs of which are revealed for the first time today.
Steve Sargent – Triumph’s Chief Product Officer
“During phase 3 we have focused on building the physical foundation of Triumph’s first electric prototype motorcycle. I am pleased with the outcome of Triumph and the TE-1 partners’ efforts in creating a demonstrator bike that is not only visually so desirable with clear Triumph DNA, but also packaged with an exhilarating and thrilling brand-new electric powertrain that has such potential for the future.
“I look forward to continuing the development of this demonstrator vehicle through phase 4 and using our knowledge and capabilities to bring all of the partners’ cutting-edge technology together into a final result which will guide Triumph’s electric strategy for the future.
“Our experience tells us that at this stage of a project there is no substitute to genuinely riding a bike when developing driveability, handling and character, and we have ambitious targets focused on delivering a riding experience that is new and exciting, but ultimately intuitive and familiar. I am really looking forward to my first opportunity to ride the completed prototype.”
Williams Advanced Engineering (WAE)
Following completion of Phase 2 of the programme in March 2021, which delivered a fully bench tested battery, Williams Advanced Engineering have now concluded work on Phase 3 which contained some critical gateways for the project.
In addition to supporting a number of hardware and software solutions; specifically integrating Triumph’s motorcycle control software to work in harmony with WAE’s controller and battery management system, the team have enhanced the integration of the mechanical and electrical solutions; optimising battery layout to balance mass and positioning within the chassis.
The demonstrator bike is now undergoing final battery level validation and calibration to ensure the performance results meet best-in-class power and energy density targets and for the rider, ensuring there is no compromise in performance at low levels of charge.
Dyrr Ardash – Head of Strategic Partnerships – Williams Advanced Engineering
“Following an extended period of testing, we are thrilled to finally see the results of our work on a physical bike. By working with the team at Triumph, we have continued to push the boundaries of battery technology, keeping the rider in mind at all times. Because we have designed the battery from the ground-up, design has not been compromised and we have been able to push the boundaries of current technology, offering both performance and all important, range”.
Integral Powertrain Ltd.’s e-Drive Division
Andrew Cross – Chief Technical Officer at Integral Powertrain Ltd.
“We are absolutely delighted to complete our part in this project and deliver what we set out to achieve which is a scalable, ultra-highly integrated motor and inverter, with no phase cables, busbars, or separate cooling circuits.
“For the TE-1 application, the motor achieves peak and continuous power densities of 13 kW/kg and 9 kW/kg respectively which is 60% higher than new APC technology roadmap targets for 2025. All of this has been achieved using materials and processes compatible with volume automotive production and importantly using a length scalable motor platform.
“The inverter concept, which is also scalable by tuning the number of Silicon-Carbide power stages for different diameter motors, has really delivered on performance. The TE-1 unit is capable of >500kW! This gives us the opportunity to optimise this platform for production.
“The integrated motor and inverter unit is now on the bike and is delivering on the target performance and cycle efficiency we engineered, modelled and simulated to achieve. We’re very much looking forward the feedback from bike-level testing and the benefits of our high efficiency on range.
“We’re really proud to have been a key part of this exciting project which has been a landmark for electric motorcycles and British industry.”
WMG, University of Warwick
Truong Quang Dinh, Associate Professor of Energy System Management and Control at WMG, University of Warwick
“WMG have been working closely with Triumph to support the development of the motorcycle control unit via a comprehensive real-time evaluation process using two bespoke physical rigs.
“A 3D physical motorcycle model has been created and integrated with the first rig to allow the evaluation and refinement of the control unit under real-world driving scenarios, ensuring it behaves well before the integration into the initial prototype bike.
“The second rig has been utilised to support Triumph in evaluating the power and energy performance of the whole drivetrain as well as confirming its durability.
“We have also focused on control research and development at other levels, including advanced traction control and optimal brake blending strategies. The findings in energy system modelling, simulation and control, especially real-world case studies with electric motorcycles, gained through this TE-1 project have been utilised to develop teaching materials on energy systems, hybridisation and electrification technologies across education programmes at WMG.”
Jim Hooper, Principal Engineer of Electric Vehicle Projects at WMG, University of Warwick
“WMG have also been helping Triumph understand the opportunities and wider implications of electrification towards their business. This has included investigating the opportunities for electric two-wheeler charging networks, the need for domestic electric motorcycle recycling, the necessity to develop local battery supply chains and the direction that Triumph will need to take to ensure that they can design, develop, manufacture and distribute electric two-wheeled vehicles in the future.
“The findings from these studies are also providing direction to national and local governments, specifically around areas where policy intervention can support electric motorcycle adoption.In many studies undertaken by WMG, bespoke computer-based models developed at the university (such as the university’s own UniWarp software), have been instrumental in understanding the best possible direction or action required for different scenarios. This approach has enabled WMG to quantify the environmental impact of electric motorcycles and has defined methods by which this can be further improved through new vehicle features, vehicle system sizing or new external collaborations.”
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Starting from the 2023 season, Ducati will be the sole supplier of motorcycles for the FIM Enel MotoE World Cup, the electric class of the MotoGP World Championship and Ducati’s electric motorcycle prototype, code-named “V21L” turned laps this week at Misano with MotoGP Test rider Michele Pirro at the controls.
Michele Pirro, Ducati test rider
“Testing the MotoE prototype on the circuit was a great thrill, because it marks the beginning of an important chapter in Ducati history. The bike is light and already has a good balance. Furthermore, the throttle connection in the first opening phase and the ergonomics are very similar to those of a MotoGP bike. If it weren’t for the silence and for the fact that in this test, we decided to limit the power output to just 70% of performance, I could easily have imagined that I was riding my bike.”
The V21L is the result of the joint work of the Ducati Corse team and the Ducati R&D engineers, led by Roberto Canè, Ducati eMobility Director, and was taken out on track by Michele Pirro, professional rider and Ducati test rider since 2013, who evaluated the technical characteristics and potential of Ducati’s first electric motorcycle.
Roberto Canè, Ducati eMobility Director
“We are experiencing a truly extraordinary moment. I find it hard to believe it is reality and still not a dream! The first electric Ducati on the track is exceptional not only for its uniqueness but also for the type of undertaking: challenging both for its performance objectives and for its extremely short timescales. Precisely for this reason, the work of the whole team dedicated to the project has been incredible and today’s result repays us for the efforts made in recent months. We are certainly not finished yet; indeed, we know that the road ahead is still very long, but in the meantime, we have laid a first important ‘brick’.”
The most important challenges in the development of an electric racing motorcycle remain related to the size, weight and range of the batteries. Ducati’s goal is to make electric motorcycles that are high-performance and characterised by their lightness available to all FIM Enel MotoE World Cup participants. The focus of the project are, in addition to better performance, the containment of weight and the consistency of power delivery during the race, obtained thanks to the attention in the development of a cooling system suitable for the objective.
Ducati’s experience in the FIM Enel MotoE World Cup will be a fundamental support for product R&D. The goal is to create, as soon as the technology allows it, a Ducati electric vehicle for road use that is sporty, light, exciting and able to satisfy all enthusiasts.
No it’s not made by the fictional Tony Stark character of Marvel movies fame but the new Stark VARG electric motorcross bike would certainly fit with that script and Stark Future CEO and Co-Founder Anton Wass could pass for a Marvel character.
VARG is Swedish for strong wolf and with 80 horsepower it certainly has some fangs.With customisable power modes that can mimic anything from a 125 cc two-stroke to a 650 cc four-stroke, it can also play many different characters.
The bike’s power curve, engine-braking, traction control and virtual flywheel weight can be tuned in a few seconds and through as many as 100 ride ‘modes’. Be nice if the audio track changed with the selection though…
The chassis is a combination of carbon-fibre, magnesium and aerospace grade aluminium which along with the 32 kg – 6kWh battery system sees the manufacturer claim a ready to ride weight of 110 kg. That’s a power to weight ratio that bests anything else currently racing on motocross tracks.
They also claim a riding range comparable to a conventional 450 motocrosser, six-hours of trail riding, or an MXGP race distance at maximum attack.Recharge times are quoted as 1-2 hours.
For those that know about such EV things Stark claims that their ‘powerplant has been forged with advanced tech and ideas, such as the patent-pending magnesium honeycomb casing, ‘slippery-fingers’ cell holders, a pressure relief system and a one-sided powerboard configuring the battery cells. The ‘flying V’ system connects every cell directly to the tough, waterproof casing. This brings high conductivity to the air-cooled structure. The result is a very even and regular battery temperature that removes unnecessary weight for water or vapour cooling.’
No radiators, fuel tank or air-box means that the VARG should offer great ergonomics.
Stark have not tried to reinvent the wheel when it comes to suspension and use industry standard Kayaba forks and shock.
Stark originates from Sweden and was established in 2019 but has put its roots down on the fringes of Barcelona.
The company plans to self-distribute in Australia and told MCNews.com.au that an Australian location and warehouse is currently being finalised. Pricing in Europe is 11,900 EURO which translates to around $19,000 AUD.
Anton Wass, Stark Future CEO and Co-Founder
“It is a very proud moment for us to finally start talking and showing the Stark VARG. As motocross riders and fans, we knew that the sport was in a chronic state, and we are losing tracks in Europe every week. It felt like motocross was going backwards while the potential for innovation with electric mobility is going quickly forwards. Our motivation was born out of frustration with the scene and the need to contribute something that would help our world and our surroundings. It’s been a fantastic journey so far and it’s exciting to see how the Stark VARG had exceeded our expectations. From a business perspective, we also wanted to set the bar in motocross because it is the toughest challenge for material and technical ideas before we move on to produce a full range of on-and-off-road motorcycles. Riders are going to love the full potential of the Stark VARG and the amount of ‘clean’ and easy fun it provides. We aimed to produce something greener and better, and we think anyone trying the bike will agree that we reached our vision.”
Testing Director and former World Champion Sébastien Tortelli
“When I first jumped on the Stark VARG it was a step into the unknown. The very first impression was from the outright performance; it was much more than I expected,” commented Testing Director and former World Champion and AMA Supercross race winner Sébastien Tortelli. “Suspension-wise, chassis-wise I immediately felt at home. This is a real motocross bike. I had to learn about the electric power and I was surprised of how fast I adapted and how fun it is to ride. We have done quite a lot of development work already. The chassis is balanced as well as nimble. The light weight means you can really move around it with ease and attack those jumps and sections. I feel awesome on the track and I can race with this bike, and this is what we are aiming for. It’s an amazing experience to ride in silence! You can hear the way the bike picks up traction, the impact of the stones and the jumps. It’s an amazing sensation.”
AMA Supercross race winner Josh Hill
“It is probably the most responsive power I’ve ever felt on a bike. The designers have done an amazing job with the chassis and the ergonomics right out of the gate. There was very little to adjust. I also love the ‘one size fits all’ idea: someone with very little experience of a dirtbike can feel safe and have fun – especially compared with trying to get their head around a new 250 or 450 – but then the serious racers or free-riders can make it as explosive as they want. The possibilities with the Stark VARG are endless. Once you’ve ridden an electric bike then its unlike anything else.”
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Three years after lampooning the Labor Party’s policy on electric vehicles, Scomo’s about-face Future Fuels strategy has been hailed as a fizzer that is too little too late.
The Australian Government’s strategy ignores the most important and effective measures to improve electric vehicle uptake, according to the Electric Vehicle Council.
The strategy is to “support and accelerate” the rollout of some charging infrastructure.
However it does not include subsidies, tax incentives, or sales targets.
The rest of the world has for years been offering tax incentives, free parking and tolls and other incentives to get people to buy EVs.
Meanwhile, electric vehicles such as Harley-Davidson almost $A40,000 LiveWire are simply way too expensive for most people.
We know that there are several other manufacturers such as BMW and Energica that have electric motorcycles and want to export to Australia but are holding off because of the lack of charging infrastructure and incentives.
Electric Vehicle Council spokesman Behyad Jafari says the strategy also fails to deliver minimum fuel efficiency standards, which have been used in the US and Europe for decades.
Fuel efficiency standards require manufacturers to sell vehicles with a combined level of emissions below a defined benchmark, encouraging the sale of zero-emission vehicles.
“There’s no sugar coating it, Future Fuels is a fizzer,” he says.
“If it contained fuel efficiency standards and rebates it would give Australians more choice. The best and most affordable EVs manufacturers are producing would make their way swiftly on to our market.
“Fuel efficiency standards are the absolute bare minimum of what you would expect in any 21st century plan.
“If Australia continues to be one of the only developed nations without fuel efficiency standards then we will continue to be a dumping ground for the world’s dirtiest vehicles. It’s sadly that simple.
“Future Fuels is certainly an advance on the government’s rhetoric of the last election. The strategy has identified some of the correct benefits and pathways, but it does little to realise them.
“I welcome the progress we’ve seen, but it’s far too little too late. For a strategy that has apparently taken years to write, it leaves much to be desired. Electric vehicles present a monumental opportunity for Australia not only in reducing pollution, but creating an innovative industry in manufacturing, technology, and services.
“The sector will continue to urge the government to take appropriate actions that get more vehicles to Australia and on our roads. It’s a shame this government doesn’t have the same ambition for Australians that the electric vehicle industry does.”
At the last election the Labor Party called for half of all electric vehicles to be electric by 2030. Manufacturers are already setting those goals, but they may still dump old-tech cars and motorcycles here because of our lack of visionary policy, says Gail Broadbent is a PhD candidate who researches social attitudes to electric cars in the UNSW Faculty of Science, and is a former transport policy advisor in the NSW Government and for not-for-profit agencies.
She calls for subsidising EVs and rolling out more chargers.
Honda have revealed further details around the Honda Mobile Power Pack or MPP, which will be the manufacturer’s portable and swappable battery system, and also seeks to address some of the issues inherent in some renewable energy with its implementation.
A big detail here was in achieving an adequate electricity supply-demand balance by installing a “buffer function” using MPP and other devices.
This is introduced as being to improve usability of renewable energy by addressing its sensitivity to natural conditions, by reducing the charging load on the power grid. Also considered is the possibility of supplying electricity stored in MPP back to the power grid in case of a power shortage. In other words, the batteries charge when renewable energy is available and feed back in when it’s not in a flexible way.
Honda is aiming for carbon neutrality for all products and corporate activities Honda is involved in by 2050, including developing the concept of “Honda eMaaS” through which Honda will contribute by connecting electrified mobility products and energy service.
Based on this concept, Honda will expand the use of renewable energy by broadening the range of electrified products through electrification of its motorcycle and automobile products and through more utilisation of MPP and also by enabling infrastructure-linked smart power operations.
With the expanded use of MPP, it will become easier to use renewable energy which is sensitive to natural conditions. For instance, when an excess amount of electricity is generated during daytime hours through solar power generation, MPP will serve as a buffer by storing such excess electricity. Then, during late afternoon hours when electricity supply runs short of the demand, the electricity stored in the MPP during the daytime can be used to achieve peak-load shifting (or “peak shaving” that lowers and smooths out peak loads) to reduce the charging load on the power grid.
At the same time, Honda is also exploring secondary use (repurposing) of MPP when it becomes unsuitable for the use of mobility products due to a reduced battery capacity as a result of degradation, including uses as a storage battery for household use and as a power source for other products. To aid this Honda has been working toward the establishment of industry standards for portable and swappable batteries.
Honda introduced MPP in 2017. The utilisation of MPP began when it was applied to a Honda electric motorcycle model which went on sale in 2018. The new GYRO CANOPY e: business-use electric three-wheeled scooter which just went on sale features Honda Mobile Power Pack e: (MPP e:), an all-new MPP with an increased battery capacity.
Current projects focusing on MPP include:
Since February 2019, Honda has been conducting demonstration testing in the Philippines for the utilization of surplus electricity using MPP and electric motorcycles for the purpose of realizing “local generation and local consumption” of electricity from renewable energy sources.
Since July 2019, Honda has been conducting demonstration testing in Indonesia of battery sharing using MPP and electric motorcycles for the purpose of accelerating electrification of mobility products and expanding the use of renewable energy.
Since February 2021, Honda has been conducting demonstration testing of battery sharing for electric tricycle taxies in India.
In light of the results of this demonstration testing, Honda will begin a battery sharing service in India, using the MPP e: in the first half of 2022.
MPP e features
The MPP e is a lithium-ion battery capable of storing a large amount of electricity, more than 1.3kW, which can be utilized as a power source for a broad range of electric devices including small-sized mobility products.
High versatility: In addition to mobility products, MPP e: can be utilized as a power source for a broad range of compatible devices.
High durability: By considering heat dissipation during continuous discharging, deterioration due to high temperature is prevented, and sufficient water resistance, vibration resistance and shock resistance are ensured under the expected normal operating environment.
Data utilisation: The built-in control unit recognizes the conditions of the MPP e: and records the occurrence of all events. This data will be collected through the connector while MPP e is charging and then utilised for the battery sharing operation and other secondary uses.
Ducati to supply electric bikes for MotoE grid from 2023
Ducati’s Claudio Domenicali and Dorna’s Carmelo Ezpeleta have made a joint announcement that Ducati would be the new supplier of MotoE bikes for the category from 2023 until at least 2026.
Ducati stated their aim to produce a lighter MotoE machine and want to use the project to develop expertise within Ducati as they look towards the future and ongoing development of electric motorcycles.
Domenicali spoke about the added challenge that a motorcycle poses compared to a car when it comes to the packaging and weight management. He stated that as of now, there is no way to make a light and sporting motorcycle with battery technology, but that there will be in the future and that he intends Ducati to be at the forefront when that transition happens.
The Ducati CEO also stated that they can lean on the excellence within their parent group from the likes of Porsche and Lamborghini to help them produce a true sporting motorcycle that is powered by EV technology.
Claudio Domenicali – Ducati CEO
“The main problem with Lithium is the energy density, it is 15-20 times less than fuel, thus the amount of fuel (lithium) you need to load is super heavy, so this is the big challenge. So we will work hard on the efficiency of the inverter and other components, and also further investigate battery technologies to try and help us meet that criteria.
“To have super quick charging times, you need high voltages, which is another challenge, but we are just at the beginning of this journey.
“Our plan is also eventually to make a production bike along these lines, but that is a long way away for the technology to become viable enough to make that a realistic option for the road. This won’t be before 2025, but we will have to wait and see the rate of progress to see when we can make that happen.”
After the press conference Ducati also issued these official quotes from Domenicali.
“We are proud of this agreement because, like all the first times, it represents a historic moment for our company. Ducati is always projected towards the future and every time it enters a new world, it does so to create the best performing product possible. This agreement comes at the right time for Ducati, which has been studying the situation of electric powertrains for years, because it will allow us to experiment in a well-known and controlled field like that of racing competition. We will work to make available to all participants of the FIM Enel MotoE World Cup electric bikes that are high-performance and characterized by lightness. It is precisely on weight, a fundamental element of sports bikes, that the greatest challenge will be played out. Lightness has always been in Ducati’s DNA and thanks to the technology and chemistry of the batteries that are evolving rapidly we are convinced that we can obtain an excellent result. We test our innovations and our futuristic technological solutions on circuits all over the world and then make exciting and desirable products available to Ducatisti. I am convinced that once again we will build on the experiences we have had in the world of racing competition to transfer them and apply them also on production bikes.”
Both the Ducati and Dorna CEOs also expanded further during the press conference regarding the progress towards carbon neutrality in racing, where some of the first steps will be the adoption of biofuels and/or synthetic fuels in the near future.
Carmelo Ezpeleta – CEO Dorna Sports
“We are very proud to announce Ducati as the new, single manufacturer for the FIM Enel MotoE World Cup. With their incredible racing history, it is an honour to welcome this commitment from one of the best-known manufacturers in the paddock and to take on this new challenge together. We are eager to see what the future has in store and continue to watch this technology develop and grow, with the MotoGP paddock and MotoE continuing to drive innovation and evolution in the motorcycling industry – at the same time as creating an incredible on-track spectacle.
“In addition, we would like to thank Energica for the important role they have played in the inception and growth of the FIM Enel MotoE World Cup. They have made an invaluable contribution to making the series what it is now as we look forward to another season racing together in 2022, ahead of this new era.”
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